Scientific models of cultural differences contrasted and compared

Published in 2021, this model consisting of 16 aspects ranging from visible culture to invisible values is scientifically underpinned as well as practically applicable.

An enormous undertaking involving more than 500 researchers in more than 160 countries. New data was published in 2020.

Schwartz’s theory measures culturally different scores on ten Basic Human Values, looking for the underlying motivator of each.

The most reknowned researcher on cultural differences. The Hofstede 6-D model of national culture is the most taught model in business schools.

Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner have developed a model of seven dimensions which focus on applicability in business and management.

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck also theorize that all cultures have a limited set of problems, and that cultural differences can be measured in the type of solutions that these groups have found for their universal problems.

One of the first people to research which factors could be used to measure differences between groups of people.

Even though their research is more than half a century old, the cultural differences that Hall discovered are still used in almost all models of cultural differences.